a human oriented spiritual philosophy that reflects and speaks to the basic
deep spiritual questions of humanity, to our basic artistic needs, to the
need to relate to the world out of a scientific attitude of mind, and to
the need to develop a relation to the world in complete freedom and based
on completely individual judgments and decisions.
A more detailed description
would possibly point to four basic aspects and levels of anthroposophy:
is a spiritual philosophy, mainly developed by Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925)
at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. It is born
out of a philosophy of freedom, living at the core of anthroposophy.
For more on anthroposophy and Rudolf Steiner from this perspective, see
2. It is a path of
knowledge or spiritual research, developed on the basis of European idealistic
philosophy, rooted in the philosophies of Aristotle, Plato,
and Thomas Aquinas. It is primarily defined by its method
of research, and secondly by the possible knowledge
or experiences this leads to.
From this perspective,
anthroposophy can also be called spiritual science. As such, it is an effort
to develop not only natural scientific, but also a spiritual scientific
research on the basis of the idealistic tradition, in the spirit of the
historical strivings, that have led to the development of modern science.
On this basis, anthroposophy
strives to bridge the clefts that have developed since the Middle Ages
between the sciences, the arts and the religious strivings
of man as the three main areas of human culture, and build the foundation
for a synthesis of them for the future.
The central organization
for the cultivation of this in connection with anthroposophy is a School
of Spiritual Science, having a center at the Goetheanum in Dornach, Switzerland.
For more on anthroposophy from this perspective, see here and here.
For a discussion
of some aspects of the relation between Natural Science and Spiritual Science,
from the perspective of the general concept of Science and the Philosophy
of Science, see here.
also is an impulse to nurture the life of the soul in the individual
and in human society, meaning among other things to nurture the
respect for and interest in others on a purely human basis independently
of their origin and views.
The main organization
for this is the Anthroposophical Society, which exists in a world wide
form, as national Anthroposophical Societies, and as groups formed on the
basis of subject. For more on this, see here. For the anthroposophical societies in the US and the UK, see here and here.
4. While rooted in
a philosophy of freedom, developed as a method of spiritual research and
an impulse to nurture a purely human interest in other people, it also
has possible practical implications and as such lives as applied
or practical anthroposophy in various "daughter movements"
The most developed
of these daughter movements of anthroposophy are biodynamic
farming, Waldorf schools (see European
Council for Steiner Waldorf Schools and the Association
of Waldorf Schools in North America for the largest Waldorf schools
associations), anthroposophical curative education (see European
Co-operation in Anthroposophical Curative Education and Social Therapy
and the Camphill Association
of North America) and anthroposophical
The main organization
originally built for the cooperation between anthroposophical organizations,
institutions and companies is the civil association General Anthroposophical
Society, having a center in Dornach, Switzerland. The corresponding organization
in the U.S. is the Council of Anthroposophical Organizations.
More on anthroposophy:
anthroposophy a religion?
anthroposophy a religious faith?
For more, see the
Steiner Archive and the
lists appr. 2,300 works (April 2014) for a search on 'anthroposophy'.
2004-2014: Robert Mays and Sune Nordwall