Philosophy of Science, the Natural Sciences and an anthroposophical understanding of man as the basis of Waldorf education
Below can be found a number of links.

As far as the Philosophy of Science is concerned, the links are related to the epistemological basis of anthroposophy as the basis of Waldorf education, and the relation of anthroposophy to the natural sciences as they have developed during the last centuries. 

The links on Goetheanism relate to books, articles and research institutes working out of or in the spirit of a Goetheanistic approach to man and nature. It constitutes a complementary approach to that dominating in the natural sciences today and in general is integrated as such in the curriculum in Waldorf schools. 

The links on Waldorf education and anthroposophy point to sites on both subjects and on the relation between them. Though the anthroposophical understanding of man and nature constitutes the basis Waldorf education, it is not as such taught at Waldorf schools. 


Philosophy of Freedom by Rudolf Steiner, founder of Waldorf education.

Rudolph Steiner's Spiritual Epistemology by Mark Hancock, Sewanee Senior Philosophy Essays, 1999, The University of the South, Tennessee. 

What is Science? - on anthroposophy from a Philosophy of Science perspective by Sune Nordwall. Paper at the Institution of Philosophy of Science, University of Gothenburg , Sweden, 1980. 

From Mysticism to a Modern Spiritual Cognition by Prof Robert A. McDermott, California Institute of Integral Studies

Philosophy as Spiritual Discipline by Prof Robert A. McDermott, California Institute of Integral Studies.



Goethean Studies by Denis Klocek, Goethean Studies Program at Rudolf Steiner College, Fair Oaks, California. 

What is Goethean Science? by David Eyes.

Goethean Science with a short biography

Putting Soul into Science (Preface) by Michael Friedjung, Research Director at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS). 

Goethe comes to New York by Judith Krischik, Info3. 

A Goethean Science Bibliography

A Bibliography for anthroposophical and Goethean approaches to Science compiled by David J. Heaf. 


The Nature Institute, Ghent, New York, USA.

Louis Bolk Institute, Driebergen, the Netherlands.

Institute for Flow Sciences, Herrischried, Germany. 

Biodynamic Research Institute, Jaerna, Sweden. 


Transcending Darwinism in the Spirit of Goethe's Science: A Philosophical Perspective on theWorks of Adolf Portmann by Hjalmar Hegge, Department of Philosophy, University of Oslo. 

Toward a Holistic Biology by Bruce K. Kirchoff, Department of Biology, University of North Carolina. 

Science, the Arts and the Humanities: Connections and Collisions. 2001 Sigma Xi Forum, November 8-9, 2001. 

Exploring Goethean Science at Schumacher College. Why we need a new Science. by Natasha Myers, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 

Getting with Goethe - Germany's greatest sage is a Green as ever by Jon Spayde, Utne Reader

The Rediscovery of "Organism" by Prof Brian Goodwin, Info3, based on a lecture delivered at the Goetheanum Congress Birth and Death in Vienna, Austria on Sept. 25, 1997. 

Seeing the Animal Whole: The Example of the Horse and Lion by Craig Holdredge, In: Goethe's Way of Science: A Phenomenology of Nature, edited by David Seamon and Arthur Zajonc (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998.

Elephantine Intelligence, on the whole-organism biology of the elephant by Craig Holdredge, Nature Institute. 

Goetheanistic biology or materialistic reductionism? a review of Brian Goodwin's How the Leopard Changed Its Spots by Ph D Johannes Wirz, Research Laboratory, Goetheanum. 

The nature and role of the heart in man. Some comments on the heart as an intermediary organ from a systems biological perspective. By Sune Nordwall and Robert Mays. 


Haeckel and his opponents by Rudolf Steiner,  J. C. C. Bruns’ Verlag, Minden i. W, 1900. 

Science as Process or Dogma? The Case of the Peppered Moth by Craig Holdredge, Elemente der Naturwissenschaft 70: 39-51, 1999. 

A Bolkian view on human evolution by Joseph Verhulst, author of 'Der Erstgeborene' (The firstborn) (Verlag Freies Geistesleben,1999). 

The Descent of Man? by Paul Carline, Southern Cross Review, nr 5, 2000. 

Evolution as a Property of Mind by Don Cruse, Southern Cross review, nr 9, 2000. 


Some Biologists Ask: "Are Genes Everything?" by Sandra Blakeslee, New York Times, September 2, 1997. 

Life Beyond Genes - Reflections on the Human Genome Project by Craig Holdrege and Johannes Wirz,  In: Context, The Nature Institute, Spring 2001. 

Golden Genes and World Hunger: Let them eat Transgenic Rice? by Craig Holdrege and Steve Abbot, Netfuture, Technology and Human Responsibility, July 6, 2000

Genetics and the Manipulation of Life The Forgotten Factor of Context by Craig Holdrege, Lindisfarne Press, 1996.

More publications by Craig Holdrege

More on Genetics and Biotechnology

IFGENE, International Forum for Genetic Engineering. A number of articles online, in English, French and German


An Aristotelian interpretation of quantum mechanics by Joseph Verhulst, 1996. 


Projective Geometry, an introduction by Nick Thomas. 

Investigations in Projective Geometry by Dwayne Alvis and Wanda Nabors. 

Homage to Pythagoras, Rediscovering Sacred Science, Ed: Christopher Bamford, (At Amazon).


Exploratory Experimentation: Goethe, Land, and Color Theory by Neil Ribe and Friedrich Steinle, Physics Today, July 2002.

Goethe's color theory as part of a collection of articles on color theory by Enigmation Design &Graphics. 

Rainbow - a Phenomenological Approach by Raimo Rask 

Catching the Light. The entwined History of Light and Mind, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993 by Arthur Zajonc. Reviews: at Amazon Books, by Hannah M.G. Shapero, Bobby Maherne, Book digests. 

A one hour video interview with Arthur Zajonc on Catching the Light and Anthroposophy October 20, 2001 at "Thinking Allowed."


Cleaning up a Toxic Childhood by Joan Almon, (now former) Coordinator of the Alliance for Childhood in the United States. 

Fool's Gold: A Critical Look at Computers in Childhood. Report of the Alliance for Childhood. Netfuture, September 12, 2000.

The computer delusion by Todd Oppenheimer, The Atlantic Monthly; July 1997.

A number of papers on computers in education and other issues by Valdemar W.Setzer, Dept. of Computer Science Institute of Mathematics and Statistics University of São Paulo, Brazil. 

From Virtual to Real by Stephen L. Talbott (published in The Future Does Not Compute: Transcending the Machines in Our Midst, Sebastopol (Ca): O'Reilly & Associates 1995.) 



For some pages on Waldorf education in US and its relation to anthroposophy, see the main sites on Waldorf education at the main page at this site on resources, on or related to Waldorf education.

For info on anthroposophy in US, see the sites of the Anthroposophical Society and the Anthroposophical movement in America. For a sister site in UK, see here. For online works by Rudolf Steiner, see the Rudolf Steiner Archive.

Literature on Waldorf education and anthroposophy
- SteinerBooks (Anthroposophic Press), USA
- Rudolf Steiner Press, UK 

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